Open Journal Systems
The “New Woman” of the Interwar Period: Performance, Identity, and Performative Act of Everyday Life in Egypt and Iran
This article is about visual culture, identity, and women in interwar Egypt and Iran. I use a transnational feminist approach to connect the histories of Egypt and Iran, in their differences and commonalities, during the interwar period. By emphasizing women’s education as the source of advancement of the society, the late nineteenth century Egyptian thinkers, Qasim Amin and Mohammad Abduh, and Iranian intellectuals Jamal al-Din Asadabadi (al-Afghani), Abdolhossein Khan Kermani, and Yusef Ashtiyani, invoked a male representation of a “feminist” discourse. During the 1906-1911 Iranian Constitutional Revolution and the 1919 Egyptian anti-British Revolution, the discourse of education was translated into women’s first quest for legal and political rights. National modernization policies, as diverse as they were in each country, translated the “woman question,” both as a discursive and a practice, into the question of women’s appearance in public.
Amin, Q. (2000). The liberation of women and the new woman: Two documents in the history of Egyptian feminism. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.
Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined communities: Reflection on the origin and spread of nationalism. New York: Verso.
Babran, S. (2002). Seyre tarikhi nashriyat zanan dar Iran mo’aser: Nashriyat vijeh zanan (Historical development of women’s press in contemporary Iran: Women’s specialized journals). Tehran: Entesharat Roshangaran wa Motaleat Zanan.
Badran, M. (1994). Feminists, Islam, and nation: Gender and the making of modern Egypt. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Beyzaii, B. (2004). Namayesh dar Iran (Performance in Iran). Tehran: Entesharat Roshangaran wa Motaleat Zanan.
Castelo-Branco, S. (1980). Performance of Arab music in twentieth-century Egypt: Reconciling authenticity and contemporaneity. Asian Music, 12(1), 557-561.
Cinar, A. (2005). Modernity, Islam, and secularism in Turkey: Bodies, places, and time. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Danielson, V. (1991). Artists and entrepreneurs: Female singers in Cairo during the 1920s. In N. Keddie and B. Baron (Eds.), Women in Middle Eastern history: Shifting boundaries in sex and gender (pp.292-309). New Haven: Yale University Press.
Doy, G. (1998). Women and visual culture in nineteenth century France, 1800-1852. New York: Leicester University Press.
During, J. (1991). The Art of Persian Music. Trans. M. Anvar. Washington, D.C.: Mage Publishers.
Emami, I. (1987). The evolution of traditional theatre and the development of modern theatre in Iran. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Edinburgh.
Farfan, P. (2004). Women, modernism, and performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Goldschmidt, Jr, A. (2000). Biographical dictionary of modern Egypt. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.
Habermas, J. (1989). The structural transformation of the public spheres: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society. Trans. T. Burger. Cambridge: The MIT Press.
al- Hafni, R. (1968). Al-Sultana Munira al-Mahdiyya (The queen Munira al-Mahdiyya). Cairo: Dar al-Shoruq.
Khaleqi, Z. (2000). Awaye mihrbani (The voice of kindness). Tehran: Dunyay Madar.
Khosrowpanah, M. (2003). Hada"a wa mobarezeh zan Irani: As Enqilab mashroteh ta saltanat Pahlavi (Goals and the struggle of the Iranian woman: From the Constitutional Revolution to
Pahlavi’s dynasty). Tehran: Nashr Payam Emrouz.
Lengel, L. & Warren, J. (Eds.). (2005). Casting gender: Women and performance in intercultural contexts. New York: Peter Lang.
Mitchell, A. (2006). Women of Egypt, 1924-1931: Pioneers of stardom and fame. London: British Library Sound Archive.
Najmabadi, A. (1998). Crafting an educated housewife in Iran. In L. Abu-Lughod (Ed.), Remaking of women: Feminism and modernity in the Middle East (pp. 91-125). Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Racy, A. (1977). Musical change and commercial recordings in Egypt, 1904-1932. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Rasoulzadeh, M. (1910, January 2). Tabib Ejbari (The doctor in spite of himself). Iran Now (New Iran), 106, 2.
Roberts, M. (2002). Disruptive acts: New woman in fin-de-siecle France. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Sami’i, A. (1999). Az zanpush ta zan, honar namayesh zanan: Gozar az sonnat be modernism (From female mimicry to woman, the art of women’s theatre: Passage from tradition to modernity).
Jense Dowwom (The Second Sex), 2(6), 4-14.
Shoja’i, M. (2004, August 7). Sedaye Zanan, Ejazeh Mardan (Women’s Voices, Men’s Permission). Retrieved June 19, 2006, from http://www.iftribune.com/news.asp?id=5&pass=82
Shoja’i, M. (2004, August 4). Qamar az Zaban Afsaneh Rasaii, Bahrameh Moqadam and Parvin (Qamer Told by Afsaneh Rasaii, Bahrameh Moqadam, and Parvin). Retrieved June 19, 2006 from http://www.iftribune.com/news.asp?id=5&pass=83
Van Niuwkerk, K. (1995). A trade like any other: Female singers and dancers in Egypt. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press.
- There are currently no refbacks.