In the early nineteen nineties, when Arab and Muslim women in the diaspora began to speak of the linguistic construct “Islam” and “feminism,” the two terms were not yet closely connected. The discourse was rather about Islamic feminism as a trend or as a different form of gender awareness and renewal in Islamic thought (Badran, 2009). With the start of the twenty first century, a large group of Muslim women scholars and activists working on feminist issues, researchers on Islam, theologians, and social scientists from Senegal, Pakistan, Indonesia, Iran, Morocco, Malaysia, France, and the United States met for a conference in Barcelona (October 26-30, 2005) under the title “Junta Islamic Catalonia”. The Iranian Ziba Mir-Hosseini, Pakistani Refaat Hassan, Afro-American Amina Wadud, Pakistani Asma Barlas, and many other voices were heard officially discussing “Islamic feminism”, knowing that the phrase itself was used earlier in the journal Zenan, in post-revolutionary Iran.
Abou Bakr, O. (2013). Al-nissiyya wa-l manzur al-Islami: afaq jadida lil-ma’rifa wa-l Islah, translated into English, Feminist and Islamic perspectives: New horizons of knowledge and reform. Cairo: Women and Memory Forum.
Raouf Ezzat, H. (1999). Al-mar’a wa-l ijtihad: Nahwa khitab islami jadid” in Alif: Al-Junussa wa-l ma‘rifa: Siyghat al-ma’arif bayna al-ta’nith wa-l tadhkir, American University of Cairo, Journal of Comparative Poetics 19, 96-117.
Mahmood, S. (2005). Politics of Piety. Princeton: Princeton University Press.