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Masculinity, Modernity, and National Identity in Interwar Egypt
On October 29, 1932 a major celebration was organized at Ankara Palace in honor of Turkish Republic Day. The Turkish leader Mustafa Kemal had invited foreign dignitaries and the local elite to the evening festivities. Among the distinguished invitees was the Egyptian ambassador, Abd al-Malik Hamza Bey. He arrived dressed in his formal regalia topped off by the symbol of Egyptian (and up to 1925, Turkish) officialdom—the tarbush.2
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