The first political struggles for women’s emancipation coincide with the rise of nations, nationalism, and the nation-state during the bourgeois democratic revolutions of the late eighteenth century. This formation of modern nation states has generally been associated with the use of violence. War, massacre, genocide, and ethnic cleansing are some of the forms of violence used by both premodern and modern states throughout the world. All these forms of violence have been patriarchal. State violence and patriarchal violence have been and still are inseparable.
Bring, Ove. “Kurdistan and the principle of self-determination,” German Yearbook of International Law/Jahrbuch für Internationales Recht, 35 (1992), 157-169.
Falk, Richard. “Problems and prospects for the Kurdish struggle for self-determination after the end of the Gulf and Cold Wars,” Michigan Journal of International Law, 15 (1994), 591-603.
Gullvåg Holter, Øystein. “A theory of gendercide,” Journal of Genocide Research, 4:1 (2002), 11-38.
Jones, Adam. “Gendercide and genocide,” Journal of Genocide Research, 2:2 (2002), 185-211.
__________. “Problems of genocide-gendercide studies and future agendas: A comparative approach,” Journal of Genocide Research, 4:1 (2002), 127-135.
Levene, Mark. “Creating a modern ‘zone of genocide’: The impact of nation- and state-formation on Eastern Anatolia, 1878-1923,” Holocaust and Genocide Studies, 1998, 12.
Mojab, Shahrzad (forthcoming), “No ‘safe haven' for women: Violence against women in Iraqi Kurdistan,” in Wenona Giles and Jennifer Hyndman. (eds.), Sites of Violence Gender and Identity in Conflict Zones. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Mojab, Shahrzad and Amir Hassanpor, ‘The politics and culture of “honour killing:” The murder of Fadime Ôahindal,’ Pakistan Journal of Women’s Studies: Alam-e-Niswan, 9:1 (June 2002), 57-77.
Mojab, Shahrzad and Amir Hassanpor, “Thoughts on the struggle against “honour killing,” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies, 16:1&2 (2002), 83-97.
Stein, Stuart, “Geno-and other cides: A cautionary note on knowledge accumulation,” Journal of Genocide Research, 4:1 (2002), 39-63.
Westwood, Sallie and Annie Phizacklea. Trans-nationalism and the Politics of Belonging. Routledge: London and New York, 2000.