Open Journal Systems
Elderly Lebanese Women in an Aging World
The turning point at which aging begins is ill defined, and the question arises as to whether there can be an age for aging (Tout, 1989). Old age is culturally determined and varies with time, person and place. Philosophers, long time ago, defined old age as the time when the individual reaches his highest point of development. According to Hippocrates, this is reached at 56, to Aristotle at 35 for the body and 50 for the soul and to Dante at 45 (De Beauvoir, 1972). In some cultures, aged is equaled with menopause in females, and in others men are not regarded as old until they are retired. Old age is perceived differently in Bangladesh where life expectancy at birth is 49 years than in Sweden or Japan where life expectancy at birth exceeds 77 years.
Andrews G. R. (1988). "Health and Ageing in the Developing World", Ciba Foundation Symposium; vol. 134, pp. 17-37.
Bonita R (1996). Women, Ageing and Health - Achieving Health across the Life Span. Global Commission on Women's Health - Ageing and Health programme. WHO, Geneva.
Choudhury S. & Leonesio M. (1997). Life-Cycle Aspects of Poverty among Older Women, Soc. Sec. Bull., vol. 60(2), pp. 17-36.
Crystal S., Shea D. & Kri shnaswani S. (1992). "Educational Attainment. Occupational History and Stratification: Determinants of Later-Life Economic Outcomes", Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, vol. 47, No.5, S213-S221.
De Beauvoir S. (1972). Old Age. Penguin Books.
Ebrahim S. (1997). Public Health Implications of Ageing, Epidemiol & Community Health, vol. 51, pp. 469-472.
Feachem RGA, Phillips MA, Bulatao RA. " Introducing Adult Health" . In Feachem RGA, Kjellstrom T, Murray CJL, Over M, Phillips MA, eds. The Health of' Adults in the Developing World. London: Oxford University Press for the World Bank 1992; pp. 1-22.
Goldman N., Krenman S. & Weinstein R. (1995). " Marital Status and
Health among the Elderly", Soc. Sci. Med. vol. 46, No.2. pp. 1717-30.
Kelman H.R. , Thomas e. & Tanaka J. S. (1994). "Longitudinal Patterns of Formal and Informal Social Support in an Urban Elderly Population", Soc. Sci. Mal., vol. 38, No.7, pp. 905-914.
Khlat M. & Armenian H. (1984). "Morbidity and Risk Factors" . In Zurayk H. and Armenian H. eds. Beirut 1984 : A population and Health Profile, American Uni versity of Beirut, pp. 91-100.
Ministry of Social Affairs (1996). "Population and Housing Survey" (raw data on CD-ROM).
Murray C.J.L. & Lopez A. D. (1997a). Alternalive Projections of Mortality and Disability by Cause J990-2020: Global Burden of' Disease Study, Lancet; vol. 349, pp. 1498-504.
Murray C.J.L. & Lopez A. D. (1997b).Global Mortality, Disability, and the Contribution of Risk Factors: Global Burden of Disease Study, Lancet; vol. 349, pp. 1436-42.
Nuwayhid 1. , Sibai A. M., Adib S. & Shaar K. H. (1997). "Morbidity, Mortality & Risk Factors". In Deeb M, eds. Beirut: A Health Profile
-J994, American University of Beirut.
Sibai A. M. (1993). "The Elderly in Lebanon: Health and Social Welfare", ESCWA/SD/l993/WG.II 18.
Sibai A. M. ( 1998). "The Elderly in Lebanon: Their Demographic, Socio-economic, Social and Health Aspects". American University of Beirut, Faculty of Health Sciences. Report presented to the Ministry of Social Affairs in Lebanon !Policies and Strategies Sub-Programme.
Sibai A. M, Sen K. (1999). "A Proposal to Assess the Impact of Traumatic Injury-Related Disability on Families and the State among Adults in Lebanon and Palestine (1996-1999)". Project NO: I C 18 CT960036 IEEE
SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences), ver. 7.5.
Tout K. (1989). "What is Ageing?" In: Tout Ken. Ageing in Developing Countries. Oxford University Press for Help Age International , pp. 5-16.
UNDP (1996). "Rapport Mondial sur le Developpement Humain 1996".
"United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia.
Demographic and Related Socioeconomic Data Sheets for Countries of the Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia as Assessed in 1986" . United Nations, New York, 1987; No.5, pp. 122-139.
United Nations (1987). "Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia. Demographic and Related Socioeconomic Data Sheets for Countries of the Economic and Social Commission for Western
Asia as Assessed in 1986". United Nations, New York, No.5, pp. 122-
Waehrer K. & Crystal S. (1995). "The Impact of Coresidence on Economic We ll-Being of Elderly Widows", Journal of Gerontology: Social Sciences, vol. 50B (4), S258.
World Health Organization ( 1994). "World Health Statistics Annual" ,
World Health Organization (1995). "Epidemiology and Prevention of Cardiovascular Diseases in Elderly People" . Report of a WHO study group, Geneva 1995. Technical Report Series, 853.
- There are currently no refbacks.