Open Journal Systems

Gender Quotas in Clientelist Systems: The Case of Morocco’s National List

James Liddell


The use of parliamentary quotas to increase women’s political participation has gained a lot of traction in women’s empowerment discourse. Women’s movements worldwide have been working hard to make progress in ensuring a more equal representation of women in parties and parliament alike. So far during this decade, Morocco has emerged as one of the leading models for increasing women’s rights in the Arab world. In 2002, an informal agreement among political parties to establish a gender quota for women in parliament quickly gave Morocco one of the highest levels of women’s representation in the Arab region. Just two years later, women’s groups celebrated one of their greatest victories with the reform of the family code, moudawana, in 2004. Both of these events coincided with an increase in the number of women in positions of power.


gender quotas; parliament; Morocco


Abou-Zeid, G. (2006). The Arab region: Women’s access to the decision-making across the Arab Nation. In D. Dahlerup (Ed.), Women, quotas, and politics (pp. 168-193). New York: Routledge.

Ballington, J & Karam, A. (Eds.). (2005). Women in parliament: Behind the numbers. Stockholm, International IDEA.

Dahlerup, D. (2006). Introduction. In D. Dahlerup (Ed.), Women, quotas, and politics (pp. 3-31). New York: Routledge.

Errebah, K. (2003). Women’s political participation: The Moroccan example. In The Arab Quota Report: Selected Case Studies (pp. 56-60). Stockholm: International IDEA.

German, E. (2009, June 11). A voice or just a seat? Global Post. Retrieved June 29, 2009, from

Karam, A. & Lovenduski, J. (2005). Women in parliament: Making a difference. In J. Ballington & A. Karam (Eds.), Women in parliament: Behind the numbers (pp. 186-212). Stockholm: International IDEA.

Naciri, R. (1998). The Women’s movement and political discourse in Morocco. Occasional paper. New York: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development.

National Democratic Institute (NDI). (2008). Assessing women’s political party programs: Best practices and recommendations. Retrieved June 29, 2009, from

Sabbagh, A. (2005). The Arab states: Enhancing women’s political participation. In J. Ballington & A. Karam (Eds.), Women in parliament: Behind the numbers, (pp. 52-71). Stockholm: International IDEA.

Tahri, R. (2003). Women’s political participation: The case of Morocco. Paper presented at The Implementation of Quotas: African Experiences, Pretoria, South Africa, November 11-12.

United Nations Development Program. (2005). Arab human development report: Towards the rise of women in the Arab World. New York: United Nations Publications.

Full Text: PDF

DOI: 10.32380/alrj.v0i0.84


  • There are currently no refbacks.

ISSN: 0259-9953

This journal is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Creative Commons License
Site developed by

  • Powered By OJS